Purpose: To compare the utility of low-dose versus standard cone-beam computed tomography (CT) angiography protocols in identifying nontarget embolization (NTE) during prostatic artery embolization (PAE).
Materials and Methods: A prospective, single-center, Phase-1 study (NCT02592473) was conducted for lower urinary tract symptoms in benign prostatic hyperplasia. Prostate volume, international prostate symptom score (IPSS), quality of life score (QoL), International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF), peak flow rate, UCLA Prostate Cancer Index (UCLA-PCI), and postvoid residual were recorded at baseline and 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24-months after PAE. Six-second (standard protocol, n 1⁄4 29) or 5-second (low-dose protocol n 1⁄4 45) rotations were made. Images were selected and matched in pairs by areas of NTE and compared by readers using a binomial generalized estimating equation model. Procedural outcomes were analyzed using a linear mixed model.
Results: Seventy-four cone-beam CT angiographies were performed in 21 patients. IPSS and QoL scores significantly improved (P<.05). There was no change in UCLA-PCI or IIEF scores. Dose area product of the low- and standard-dose protocol were 37,340.82mGy$cm2 ± 104.66 and 62,645.66 mGy$cm2 ± 12,711.48, respectively, representing a dose reduction of 40.4%. A total of 120 comparisons showed no preference between the 2 protocols (P 1⁄4.24). Observers identified 76 and 69 instances of NTE in the standard-and low-dose protocols, respectively (P 1⁄4.125).
Conclusions: Low-dose cone-beam CT angiography achieved equivalent clinical utility in identifying NTE during PAE, with the advantage of a lower radiation dose.